Bonding, structure and the properties of matter
- Describe ionic bonding in terms of electron transfer and use dot and cross diagrams to show how ionic bonding occurs.
- Describe the structure of ionic compounds as giant lattices and deduce the simplest empirical formula for a compound.
- Relate the key properties of ionic compounds to the structure of the compound.
- Explain how non-metals can bond in order to form covalent bonds and show this using dot-cross diagrams.
- Predict the state of matter of a substance from its boiling and melting points and use state symbols correctly.
- Relate the structure of small covalent bonds to their properties including boiling points.
- Describe the properties of giant covalent structures including diamond, graphite and silicon dioxide.
- Recognise the structures of graphenes and fullerenes from diagrams and recall the useful properties of such substances.
- Recognise polymers from diagrams and recall that they are very large molecules.
- Relate the structure of metallic bonding to the properties of metals specifically why metals conduct heat, electricity and are malleable.
- Explain why alloys are harder than pure metals.
- SEPS ONLY-Describe how nanoparticles have different properties from the same material in bulk size due to a high surface area to volume ratio.
- SEPS ONLY-Evaluate the uses of nanoparticles.
- Describe how metals react in order to form metal oxides.
- Recall and describe how observations of reactions of metals can place metals in order of their reactivity.
- Describe how a metal may displace another metal from its compound if it more reactive.
- Describe how metals may be extracted using carbon in reduction reactions.
- Describe oxidation and reduction in terms of electronic gain or loss. (HT ONLY)
- Describe the reactions of metals and acids as REDOX reactions. (HT ONLY)
- Describe the process of the electrolysis of ionic compounds.
- State the products formed at the anode and cathode when molten substances are electrolysed.
- Describe how electrolysis is used in order to extract metals from their ores.
- RP- Describe the products formed during the electrolysis of aqueous solutions and describe this in terms of reactivity.
- Write half equations for products formed during electrolysis. (HT ONLY)
Infection and response
- Define a pathogen, the types and state the problems associated with bacteria and viruses.
- State the symptoms, prevention methods, treatments and transmission type of Measles, HIV and TMV.
- State the symptoms, prevention methods, treatments and transmission type of Salmonella and Gonorrhoea.
- State the symptoms, prevention methods, treatments and transmission type of Malaria and Rose black spot.
- Describe and explain the 4+ non-specific defence systems.
- Describe and explain how white blood cells help to defend against pathogens.
- Describe and explain how vaccinations work.
- Describe and compare the role of antibiotics and painkillers.
- State x3 traditional drugs and their sources and describe and explain modern day pre-clinical and clinical drug testing using key terms- toxicity, efficacy and dose.
- SEPS ONLY -Describe the process of manufacturing monoclonal antibodies. (HT ONLY)
- SEPS ONLY- Describe and explain the x4 uses of monoclonal antibodies. (HT ONLY)
- SEPS ONLY- Describe the methods of detection and identification of plant diseases.
- SEPS ONLY- Describe and explain the x3 categories of plant defence responses.
Use the periodic table in order to calculate the proton, electron and neutron number and describe the structure of different isotopes of an element.
Describe the properties and structure of radioactivity including penetration, range in air and ionization power and describe and explain some everyday uses of nuclear radiation.
Explain the effect that emitting radioactivity has on the nucleus of an atom, use nuclear equations to represent these changes.
Describe how nuclear radioactive decay is random but can be represented by a half-life graph. Use a half- life graph in order to calculate half-life.
Compare the hazards associated with contamination and irradiation including any precautions that should be taken.
SEPS ONLY- State the sources of background radiation and how this can be affected by occupation or location.
SEPS ONLY- Interpret and draw diagrams in order to show how nuclear fission causes a chain reaction to occur. Describe nuclear fusion and compare it to nuclear fission.
- Draw and describe the role of a variety of circuit symbols.
- Describe electric current and use the equation Charge = Current x time.
- Use the equation Resistance = Potential difference/ current in order to make calculations.
- RP – Complete a practical to investigate how the length of a wire affects its resistance. Complete a practical in order to investigate how resistors in series and parallel affects the total resistance in a circuit.
- RP – Investigate how potential difference affects the current in a filament lamp, a diode and a fixed resistor.
- Explain how resistance changes when temperature changes in a thermistor and how resistance changes when light intensity changes in a light dependent resistor.
- Describe how current and potential difference behave for components connected in series and parallel.
- Describe the difference between A.C and D.C electricity in terms of current and potential difference. Label and describe the functions of parts of a 3-pin plug.
- Use the equations Power = current x potential difference and Power = Current 2 x Resistance in order to make calculations.
- Use the equations Energy = Power x time and Energy = Charge x potential difference in order to make calculations.
- Label the different parts of the national grid and explain why transformers are used in order to reduce energy loss.
- SEPS ONLY- Explain in terms of charge transfer how certain objects can become statically charged.
- SEPS ONLY- Describe how a charged object will create an electric field and how this field changes with distance.
- Use the periodic table in order to calculate the relative formula mass of elements and compounds.
- Calculate the percentage mass of an element in a compound using relative formula mass.
- Calculate the number of moles of a substance given appropriate information. (HT ONLY)
- Describe how in any chemical reaction mass is conserved even when a gas is given off.
- Use moles in order to calculate masses produced in chemical reactions. (HT ONLY)
- Calculate uncertainty for chemical measurements.
- Explain how a limiting reactant will affect the amount of a product formed. (HT ONLY)
- Calculate the mass of a solute in a given volume of a solution of known concentration.
- SEPS ONLY- Calculate the percentage yield of a reaction and compare this to theoretical yield.
- SEPS ONLY- Use the equation- relative formula mass of a desired product/ sum of relative formula masses of reactants x100 to calculate the percentage atom economy.
- SEPS ONLY- Explain how the concentration of a solution is related to the mass of the solute and the volume of the solution. (HT ONLY)
- SEPS ONLY- Use the standard volume of gas law in order to calculate the volume of gas at room temperature from its relative formula mass and mass of the gas. (HT ONLY)
- Describe what is meant by endothermic and exothermic reactions.
- RP- Investigate the variables that affect temperature change in exothermic reactions.
- Draw and interpret reaction profiles for exothermic and endothermic reactions.
- Calculate the energy change given the bond energies of a reaction. (HT ONLY)
- SEPS ONLY-Describe how electrodes and electrolytes can be used in order to produce cells.
- SEPS ONLY-Evaluate the use of hydrogen fuel cells.
Homeostasis and response
- Define homeostasis, state factors that need to be controlled and the parts of the control systems used.
- RP- State and describe the function of the structures in the reflex arc, describe the key features of the nervous system and investigate the effect of a factor on human reaction time.
- SEPS ONLY- Identify and describe the functions of the three main sections of the brain, describe how scientists have studied the brain and the difficulties that are still faced.
- SEPS ONLY- Identify and the describe the function of key structures within the eye, explain accommodation and defects that may occur with this process.
- SEPS ONLY- Describe where and how the thermoregulatory centre works and what changes it coordinates to regulate temperature.
- Describe the key features of the endocrine system and the main glands involved.
- Describe and explain how glucose is regulated through the endocrine system and the defects that may occur with this process.
- SEPS ONLY- State the substances that are removed from the body via the kidneys and how the endocrine system controls this. Describe and evaluate treatment methods for kidney failure.
- State the x4 hormones involved in the menstrual cycle, where they are released from and describe their role and interactions in the control of the menstrual cycle.
- Evaluate the different hormonal and non-hormonal methods of contraception.
- Describe the use of hormones to treat infertility, describe and explain the process of IVF and evaluate methods of treating infertility. (HT ONLY)
- Describe how negative feedback loops work alongside control systems using examples including adrenaline, thyroxin, insulin and glucagon. (HT ONLY)
- SEPS ONLY- RP- Describe and explain how plant hormones control phototrophic and gravitrophic responses. State the specific hormones involved in key plant responses and investigate the effect of light or gravity on newly germinated seedlings.
- SEPS ONLY- Describe the effects of some plant hormones and the different ways people use them to control plant growth. (HT ONLY)”
The rate and extent of chemical change
- Calculate mean and specific rates of reaction in some cases using a graph.
- Describe and explain how changing surface area affects rate of reaction.
- Describe and explain how changing concentration affects rate of reaction.
- Describe and explain how changing pressure affects rate of reaction.
- Describe and explain how changing temperature affects rate of reaction.
- RP- Investigate how changes in concentration affect the rates of reactions by a
method involving measuring the volume of a gas produced and a method involving a change in
colour or turbidity.”
- Define collision theory and describe how to increase the rate. Define activation energy and describe how to reduce it.
- Define a catalyst, identify catalysts in chemical reactions, describe how catalysts affect chemical reaction and complete/construct a reaction profile containing a catalyst.
- Identify and define a reversible reactions and define equilibrium.
- Predict the effect of changing concentration, pressure or temperature on a reaction in a state of equilibrium. (HT ONLY)
- Describe the difference between longitudinal and transverse waves giving examples of each.
- Label a wave with its amplitude, wavelength and use the equation Wave speed = frequency x wavelength in order to make calculations.
- RP- Use a ripple tank in order to calculate the velocity of water waves and describe a method in order to calculate the velocity of sound in air and a solid.
- SEPS ONLY- RP- Complete a practical in order to investigate the reflection and refraction of waves by different substances and through different mediums.
- SEPS ONLY -Describe how the ear converts sound waves through the air into the sensation of sound. Know the normal human hearing range (HT ONLY).
- SEPS ONLY- Describe how changes in which waves travel in solids, liquids and gases can be used in ultrasound scanning, echo sounding and to study seismic waves (HT ONLY).
- Recall the order of the electromagnetic spectrum and the uses of different types of electromagnetic waves.
- Describe how different substances absorb, transmit, reflect or refract electromagnetic waves that change with wavelength and give examples of this in everyday life (HT ONLY).
- Use diagrams in order to describe how waves can be refracted at the boundary of 2 surfaces giving examples of this phenomenon in everyday life.
- RP- Complete an experiment in order to investigate how the amount of infra- red radiation absorbed or radiated by a surface depends on the nature of the surface.
- Use the properties of electromagnetic waves in order to link these to their uses and dangers.
- SEPS ONLY-Use the equation magnification = image height/object height in order to show how convex and concave lenses work.
- SEPS ONLY- Explain how the colour of an object is related to its absorption, transmission and reflection of different wavelengths. Relate this to colour filters.
- SEPS ONLY- Explain how the absorption and emission of infra red radiation is related to the objects temperature.
- SEPS ONLY-Explain how a perfect black body behaves in relation to absorption and emission of infra red radiation.