Homeostasis and response
- Define homeostasis, state factors that need to be controlled and the parts of the control systems used.
- RP- State and describe the function of the structures in the reflex arc, describe the key features of the nervous system and investigate the effect of a factor on human reaction time.
- SEPS ONLY- Identify and describe the functions of the three main sections of the brain, describe how scientists have studied the brain and the difficulties that are still faced.
- SEPS ONLY- Identify and the describe the function of key structures within the eye, explain accommodation and defects that may occur with this process.
- SEPS ONLY- Describe where and how the thermoregulatory centre works and what changes it coordinates to regulate temperature.
- Describe the key features of the endocrine system and the main glands involved.
- Describe and explain how glucose is regulated through the endocrine system and the defects that may occur with this process.
- SEPS ONLY- State the substances that are removed from the body via the kidneys and how the endocrine system controls this. Describe and evaluate treatment methods for kidney failure.
- State the x4 hormones involved in the menstrual cycle, where they are released from and describe their role and interactions in the control of the menstrual cycle.
- Evaluate the different hormonal and non-hormonal methods of contraception.
- Describe the use of hormones to treat infertility, describe and explain the process of IVF and evaluate methods of treating infertility. (HT ONLY)
- Describe how negative feedback loops work alongside control systems using examples including adrenaline, thyroxin, insulin and glucagon. (HT ONLY)
- SEPS ONLY- RP- Describe and explain how plant hormones control phototrophic and gravitrophic responses. State the specific hormones involved in key plant responses and investigate the effect of light or gravity on newly germinated seedlings.
- SEPS ONLY- Describe the effects of some plant hormones
and the different ways people use them to control plant growth. (HT ONLY)”
- Describe the difference between vector and scalar quantities, giving examples of each.
- Describe the difference between a contact and non-contact force giving examples of each.
- Use the equation Weight = mass x gravitational constant in order to make calculations.
- Find the resultant force on an object when several forces are acting in different directions.
- Use the equation Work done = force x distance in order to make calculations.
- RP – investigate the relationship between force and extension for a spring.
- Use the equation Force = spring constant x extension to make calculations and relate this to the energy stored in a stretched or compressed elastic object.
- SEPS ONLY- Use the equation Moment = Force x distance in order to make calculations and describe motors, levers and gears.
- SEPS ONLY- Use the equation Pressure = force/area to make calculations and use the equation Pressure = height of column x density x gravitational field strength to calculate the pressure in a fluid (HT ONLY).
- SEPS ONLY- Explain and describe how atmospheric pressure occurs and why it changes with distance above the Earth’s surface.
- Explain the difference between displacement and distance, also speed and velocity and make calculations in order to compare them.
- Draw and interpret distance -time graphs.
- Use the equation Acceleration = change in velocity/time taken and other equations in order to make calculations.
- Draw and interpret velocity- time graphs.
- Recall and describe Newton’s first law of motion, giving examples of this in everyday life.
- Recall and describe Newton’s second law of motion and use the equation Force = mass x acceleration in order to make calculations.
- RP – Investigate the effect of varying force and mass on an accelerating object.
- Recall and describe Newton’s third law giving examples in everyday life.
- State factors that may affect the reaction time of a person and how this may affect the stopping distance of a vehicle.
- State factors that may affect the braking distance of a vehicle and how this may affect overall stopping distance.
- Use the equation Momentum = mass x velocity in order to make calculations (HT ONLY).
- SEPS ONLY- Calculate the change in 2 objects velocity given that in an elastic collision momentum is conserved.
Chemistry of the atmosphere
- Recall the proportions of gases in today’s atmosphere. Describe and explain the changes in the Earth’s atmosphere over time, specifically changes in CO2 and O2 levels.
- Recall the greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere and the greenhouse effect. State human activities that increase greenhouse gases and explain why it is difficult to report and model global climate change.
- Describe the risk and at least four effects of global climate change. Define carbon footprint and how it can be reduced.
- Describe and explain how x6 pollutants are produced and the effects of these being released into the atmosphere.
- Define sustainable development and provide examples of natural resources that can be supplemented or replaced by agricultural and synthetic products.
- Compare potable water to pure water. Describe and explain the process of making potable water from fresh water and the two methods of making potable water from salty water.
- RP- Analyse water for pH and dissolved solids from different water sources. Purify water carrying out distillation.
- Describe where waste water comes from and why it needs to be treated. Describe and explain the process of treating waste water.
- Describe and evaluate the processes of bioleaching and phytomining to extract metal from low grade ores. (HT ONLY)
- Define a LCA and describe and explain the process of carrying out a LCA.
- Evaluate the key ways to reduce the use of the Earth’s resources. Describe how this is done specifically with common materials.
- SEPS ONLY – Describe experiments and interpret results to show that both air and water are necessary for rusting and explain sacrificial protection in terms of relative reactivity.
- SEPS ONLY-Describe the makeup of gold, bronze, brass and steel and recall a use of each of the alloys.
- SEPS ONLY-Explain the differences in the formation and structure of thermosetting and thermosoftening polymers. List some examples of composite materials and explain how glass and ceramics are made.
- SEPS ONLY – Describe and explain the Haber process and explain how the processes of dynamic equilibrium are used to make the process commercially viable.
- SEPS ONLY- recall the names of the salts produced when phosphate rock is treated with nitric acid, sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid and compare the industrial production of fertilisers with laboratory preparations of the same compounds, given appropriate information.
Inheritance, variation and evolution
- Compare asexual and sexual reproduction.
- Explain how meiosis halves the number of chromosomes in gametes.
- SEPS ONLY – Describe the advantages of asexual and sexual reproduction and give examples of organisms that can reproduce using both methods.
- Describe the structure of DNA, define genome and explain the importance of studying the human genome.
- SEPS ONLY- Describe the structure of DNA, explain how proteins are synthesised, how mutations occur and the role of non-coding DNA.
- SEPS ONLY- Describe the development of our understanding of genetics including
the work of Mendel.”
- Explain fully and use the x10 key terms around genetics and inheritance correctly, construct and complete a Punnett square diagram and use it to make predictions.
- Describe the causes and consequences of cystic fibrosis and polydactyl and construct a punnet square to show sex inheritance.
- Describe the causes of individual variation, the importance of variation and the effects of the causes on the phenotype of an organism.
- Define a species, describe and explain natural selection using knowledge of variation and using an example and how this can lead to a new species being formed.
- SEPS ONLY- Explain how and why the theory of evolution by natural selection developed over time and explain other theories of evolution.
- Explain how fossils, resistant bacteria and extinction are all evidence for Darwin’s theory. State all types of fossils and why we can’t fully rely on this type of evidence. Explain why antibiotic resistance occurs.
- SEPS ONLY- Describe the steps which give rise to new species and the work from specific scientists which lead to the theory of speciation being developed over time.
- Define and evaluate selective breeding and state x4 examples of characteristics that are selectively bred across various species.
- Describe genetic engineering, evaluate current uses of genetic engineering and describe the process of using microorganisms in genetic engineering.
- SEPS ONLY- Describe and evaluate the x4 types of cloning in plants and animals.
- Describe and explain the developments in the classification systems over time and how classification systems can be used to construct evolutionary trees.
- Describe the difference between longitudinal and transverse waves giving examples of each.
- Label a wave with its amplitude, wavelength and use the equation Wave speed = frequency x wavelength in order to make calculations.
- RP- Use a ripple tank in order to calculate the velocity of water waves and describe a method in order to calculate the velocity of sound in air and a solid.
- SEPS ONLY- RP- Complete a practical in order to investigate the reflection and refraction of waves by different substances and through different mediums.
- SEPS ONLY -Describe how the ear converts sound waves through the air into the sensation of sound. Know the normal human hearing range (HT ONLY).
- SEPS ONLY- Describe how changes in which waves travel in solids, liquids and gases can be used in ultrasound scanning, echo sounding and to study seismic waves (HT ONLY).
- Recall the order of the electromagnetic spectrum and the uses of different types of electromagnetic waves.
- Describe how different substances absorb, transmit, reflect or refract electromagnetic waves that change with wavelength and give examples of this in everyday life (HT ONLY).
- Use diagrams in order to describe how waves can be refracted at the boundary of 2 surfaces giving examples of this phenomenon in everyday life.
- RP- Complete an experiment in order to investigate how the amount of infra- red radiation absorbed or radiated by a surface depends on the nature of the surface.
- Use the properties of electromagnetic waves in order to link these to their uses and dangers.
- SEPS ONLY-Use the equation magnification = image height/object height in order to show how convex and concave lenses work.
- SEPS ONLY- Explain how the colour of an object is related to its absorption, transmission and reflection of different wavelengths. Relate this to colour filters.
- SEPS ONLY- Explain how the absorption and emission of infra red radiation is related to the objects temperature.
- SEPS ONLY-Explain how a perfect black body behaves in relation to absorption and emission of infra red radiation.
Magnetism and electromagnetism
- State the forces of attraction and repulsion of different poles of a magnet and use a variety of methods in order to draw a magnetic field around a bar magnet.
- Describe how a current flowing through a wire causes a magnetic effect and how the strength of this magnetic effect can be increased.
- Use Fleming’s left hand rule in order to deduce the direction of current, field, or force when a permanent magnet and a current carrying wire interact. (HT ONLY)
- Use the equation Force = magnetic flux density x current x length in order to make calculations. (HT ONLY)
- Use the electromagnetic effect in order to explain how this causes a coil of wire to rotate in an electric motor. (HT ONLY)
- SEPS ONLY – Explain how the motor effect is used in a loudspeaker (HT ONLY).
- SEPS ONLY- Explain how the relative movement of a wire in a magnetic field induces a potential difference and recall the factors that change the strength of this induced potential. (HT ONLY)
- SEPS ONLY-Describe how electromagnetic induction is used in an AC alternator and a DC dynamo. (HT ONLY)
- SEPS ONLY- Using diagrams explain how a moving coil microphone works (HT ONLY).
- SEPS ONLY- Describe how transformers use AC in order to change both current and potential difference. Use the equation Potential difference in the primary coil x current in the primary coil = Potential difference in the secondary coil x current in the secondary coil. (HT ONLY)