Year 9 Science Learning Map

Autumn Term

Cell Biology

  • Draw and define the roles of key organelles in plant and animal cells.
  • Describe the key differences between Eukaryotic cells and Prokaryotic cells.
  • RP- Calculate magnification, compare electron and light microscopes and describe how to increase magnification and resolution of an image.
  • Describe the structure and adaptations of all 6 specialised cells.
  • Explain when and why cell differentiation occurs in plant and animal cells.
  • SEPS ONLY- RP- Explain how to prepare an uncontaminated bacteria culture.
  • State the number of chromosomes found in somatic cells and gametes and where they are found.
  • Describe what happens in the three stages of the cell cycle and why they need to happen.
  • Describe key characteristics of human and plant stem cells and evaluate therapeutic cloning.
  • Describe examples of diffusion in plant and animals, explain how to increase the rate of diffusion (inc SA:VOL ratio) and describe factors that affect the rate.
  • RP- Describe how to investigate the effect of solution concentration on osmosis and calculate % change in mass.
  • Describe examples of active transport in plants and animals and how cells are adapted to speed up the rate of active transport.

Atomic structure and the periodic table

  • Draw a diagram in order to show the structure of the atom, labelling the subatomic particles and Use the information from the periodic table in order to calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons in an atom.
  • Illustrate and interpret the electronic structure of common elements.
  • Define an element giving examples.
  • Explain the arrangement of the periodic table in terms of atomic number.
  • Describe how the periodic table has changed from early designs to the present model.
  • Define a compound and give common examples of how compounds are formed from elements in the periodic table.
  • Write word and balanced symbol equations in order to describe chemical reactions that form compounds.
  • Define a mixture and suggest an appropriate separation technique in order to separate a mixture.
  • Carry out experiments in order to separate mixtures using filtration, crystallisation, distillation, fractional distillation and chromatography.
  • Describe how the model of the atom has evolved from early models to the current nuclear model.
  • Use the periodic table in order to label the positions and properties of metals and non-metals.
  • Describe the properties of the elements in group 0 and relate this to their atomic structure.
  • Describe the properties and reactivity of group 1 metals including explaining how the reactivity increases down the group.
  • Describe the properties of the elements in group 7 including explaining how the reactivity decreases down the group.
  • SEPS ONLY -Compare the properties of transition metals with group 1 metals including reactivity.

Chemical Reactions

  • State the difference between a physical change and a chemical reaction.
  • Describe how to make an Indicator
  • Describe the conditions needed for the corrosion of metals to take place.
  • Describe the reaction of acids with alkalis. (neutralisation) and metals and identify the products formed.
  • Identify acids and alkalis. from the use of an indicator
  • Identify the reactivity of metals using displacement reactions including word equations.
  • Describe the chemical reaction of combustion and thermal decomposition. including the word equation
  • Represent chemical reactions using word equations.
  • Describe an exothermic and endothermic reaction.
  • Plan and carry out an investigation to compare to different catalysts.
  • Describe the chemical reaction of combustion and thermal decomposition including the symbol equation.
  • Able to write chemical reactions using symbol equations

Particle model of matter

  • Draw diagrams and explain the arrangement of particles in solids, liquids and gases.
  • State the various changes of state that can occur and how this represents a physical change and a change in internal energy.
  • Calculate the specific heat capacity of a substance using the equation Energy change = Mass x specific heat capacity x temperature change.
  • Use the equation Energy = mass x latent heat in order to make calculations.
  • RP – Use the equation Density = mass/ volume. Use a variety of methods in order to calculate the density of regular and irregular shaped objects.
  • Describe how gases exert pressure on the walls of a container and how that pressure is related to the motion of the particles and the temperature.
  • SEPS ONLY -Use the equation pressure x volume = constant to calculate how changes in one variable affect the other.
  • SEPS ONLY- Explain how doing work on an enclosed gas leads to an increase in pressure. (HT ONLY)

Spring Term

Organisation in humans

  • Apply your knowledge of size and scale to order parts of an animal or plant.
  • State the purpose of digestion, the role of all the organs and chemicals involved in digestion and their adaptations.
  • RP- To be able to describe how we test for carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and sugar.
  • Describe the purpose of an enzyme, state the enzymes involved in digestion, the reactions they catalyse, where they are produced, where they are found and the factors that affect their rate.
  • RP- Describe an investigation which determines the time taken for amylase to
    digest a starch solution at a range of pH values.”
  • Describe and explain the structure and function of the human heart and blood vessels.
  • State the components of the blood and their role.
  • Describe and explain the structure, adaptations and function of the lungs in relation to gaseous exchange.
  • Compare treatments of all cardiovascular diseases and explain the consequences of CHD.
  • Define health and interpret data on disease interactions.
  • Describe the relationship between lifestyle/medical risk factors and non-communicable diseases.
  • Define Benign and Malignant tumours and describe the relationship between carcinogens and specific cancers.

The PH scale and neutralisation

  • Describe acids and alkalis in terms of properties and ions contained in a solution.
  • Identify is a substance an alkali or an acid using the PH scale including its strength.
  • Complete a practical and write a balanced symbol equation to show neutralisation.
  • RP- Describe how to produce a pure dry sample of a soluble salt.
  • SEPS ONLY-RP -Describe how to carry out titrations using strong acids and strong alkalis.
  • Relate the strength of acids and alkalis in terms of ionisation in aqueous solutions. (HT ONLY)
  • Write word and balanced equations in order to describe the reactions of metals and acids.

Energy

  • Describe how energy stores can change in a system.
  • Use the equation Kinetic energy = 1/2 x mass x velocity2 in order to calculate the kinetic energy of a moving object.
  • Use the equation Elastic energy = 1/2 x spring constant x extension2 in order to calculate the elastic energy stored in an object that has been stretched or compressed.
  • Use the equation Gravitational potential energy = mass x gravitational constant x height in order to calculate the gravitational potential energy of an object that is raised above the ground.
  • RP – Complete a practical in order to calculate the specific heat capacity of an object using the equation Change in Energy = Mass x Specific heat capacity x temperature change.
  • Use the equation Power = energy/time and Power = work done/time in order to make calculations.
  • State the law of conservation of energy and use this in order to describe energy transfers in a closed system.
  • SEPS only – RP Complete an experiment in order to investigate the effectiveness of different materials as thermal insulators.
  • Use the equation Efficiency = Useful (power or energy)/ Total (power or energy) in order to make calculations.
  • Name the sources of non-renewable energy and renewable energy and their uses.
  • Describe the advantages and disadvantages of using different energy resources, including availability and environmental impacts.

Summer Term

Bioenergetics and Organisation in plants

  • Describe the roles of the plant organs in the plant organ system.
  • Describe the structure and function of the tissues that make up the plant organs.
  • Describe transpiration and explain the effect of x4 factors on transpiration.
  • Describe the process of translocation.
  • State the word and symbol equation for photosynthesis. State what type of reaction this is and how a plant receives its reactants.
  • Explain the effects of x4 factors on the rate of photosynthesis, describe how these factors can be overcome, use data to determine a limiting factor and be able to describe inverse square law in relation to the effect of light.
  • RP- investigate the effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis
    using an aquatic organism such as pondweed.”
  • State the x5 uses of glucose in a plant following photosynthesis.
  • Compare the respiration reactions and their uses.
  • Describe why and how the body needs to respond to exercise and the potential problems associated.
  • Define metabolism and the reactions involved.

Bonding, structure and the properties of matter

  • Describe ionic bonding in terms of electron transfer and use dot and cross diagrams to show how ionic bonding occurs.
  • Describe the structure of ionic compounds as giant lattices and deduce the simplest empirical formula for a compound.
  • Relate the key properties of ionic compounds to the structure of the compound.
  • Explain how non-metals can bond in order to form covalent bonds and show this using dot-cross diagrams.
  • Predict the state of matter of a substance from its boiling and melting points and use state symbols correctly.
  • Relate the structure of small covalent bonds to their properties including boiling points.
  • Describe the properties of giant covalent structures including diamond, graphite and silicon dioxide.
  • Recognise the structures of graphenes and fullerenes from diagrams and recall the useful properties of such substances.
  • Recognise polymers from diagrams and recall that they are very large molecules.
  • Relate the structure of metallic bonding to the properties of metals specifically why metals conduct heat, electricity and are malleable.
  • Explain why alloys are harder than pure metals.
  • SEPS ONLY-Describe how nanoparticles have different properties from the same material in bulk size due to a high surface area to volume ratio.
  • SEPS ONLY-Evaluate the uses of nanoparticles.

Atomic structure

  • Use the periodic table in order to calculate the proton, electron and neutron number and describe the structure of different isotopes of an element.
  • Describe the properties and structure of radioactivity including penetration, range in air and ionization power and describe and explain some everyday uses of nuclear radiation.
  • Explain the effect that emitting radioactivity has on the nucleus of an atom, use nuclear equations to represent these changes.
  • Describe how nuclear radioactive decay is random but can be represented by a half-life graph. Use a half- life graph in order to calculate half-life.
  • Compare the hazards associated with contamination and irradiation including any precautions that should be taken.
  • SEPS ONLY- State the sources of background radiation and how this can be affected by occupation or location.
  • SEPS ONLY- Interpret and draw diagrams in order to show how nuclear fission causes a chain reaction to occur. Describe nuclear fusion and compare it to nuclear fission.